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Digestion and Absorption

Digestion and Absorption Introduction All the life forms act as open system that incessantly exchange energy and matter with their surroundings to sustain the state of ‘life’. The autotrophs convert carbon dioxide into organic molecules (simple carbohydrates like glucose) by harvesting the energy of solar radiation (photoautotrophs) or chemical redox reactions (chemoautotrophs). Thus, photoautotrophs (photosynthesizing … Read more

Cell: Structure and Functions

fluid mosaic model of plasma membrane

Cell Structure and Functions 1. The Cell Theory Almost all the physical, physiological, metabolic and other activities of life (like glycolysis, TCA, photosynthesis, replication, transcription, translation, respiration, etc.) of a (cellular) living organisms (excluding viruses) occur inside the cells irrespective of the unicellularity or multicellularity of the organism. The cell structure and functions greatly varies … Read more

Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration

Steps of Glycolysis starting from Glucose (Fischer projections)

The breakdown of glucose (and, other 6C carbohydrates) into two molecules of pyruvate is called glycolysis. The anaerobic respiration (fermentation) pathways may serve as the sole source of energy in many obligate anaerobic heterotrophs. These fermentation pathways are also of great significance for the survival of their host cells under hypoxic and anaerobic conditions in facultative and aerobic organisms.

Memorizing Amino acids & Genetic Code Dictionary

memorizing amino acids and genetic code dictionary

Introduction: Memorizing all the twenty standard amino acids and the genetic code dictionary is of great advantages when it comes to take up competitive exams besides improving the normal learning curve in the related topics. These two interdependent learning features may help solve many questions related to predicting some features of the wild type and … Read more

Analyte Estimation using Spectrophotometric Methods & Excel

Analyte Estimation using Spectrophotometric Methods & Excel

Beer law or Beer-Lambert’s law states that the absorbance of a solution is proportional to its concentration and pathlength. Mathematically,
Absorbance, A = e C L
And, A = e C L – Equation 1
e = absorptivity at specified wavelength and temperature (M-1cm-1)
L = path length (in cm)
C = molar concentration of the solute

Calculating Exact Charge & pI of Amino acids, Peptides and other Molecules

Calculating Exact Charge and pI of amino acids and peptides

Calculate Charge & pI of Amino acids,
Peptides and other Molecules. The modified Henderson-Hasselbalch equations derived in the next sections are used to calculate the exact charge on any weakly acidic or basic group. It is also an excellent tool to mathematically determine the isoelectric pH (pI) of amino acids, peptides, drugs, pH indicators or any other molecule having at least one acidic and basic group.

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